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MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY :

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY :

FOOD DRINK NUTRITION DIET: NUTRITION :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :

INTERNET RESOURCES :

STATISTICS :

DATA:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity.

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

[Resource Website]

https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/

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NUTRITION

https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/index.html

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DATA AND STATISTICS

Nutrition, breastfeeding and micronutrient facts, surveillance systems, state indicator reports and more

https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/data-statistics/index.html

Fruits and Vegetables

The State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2013[PDF- 1.23MB]
This report provides national and state-level information on how many fruits and vegetables people are eating, and highlights key areas within communities and schools that can be improved to increase fruit and vegetable access, availability, and affordability.

The National Action Guide, 2013[PDF-745KB]

A basket of fresh fruits and vegetablesThis guide summarizes the national data on fruit and vegetable consumption and policy and environmental supports. It also provides potential actions that government and business leaders, coalitions, community-based organizations, and professionals can take to support Americans’ eating more fruits and vegetables, along with resources for taking action.

Data, Trends, and Maps.

This interactive tool provides state-by-state data on fruit and vegetable consumption including environmental and policy support for fruit and vegetable intake.

State Action Guides, 2013

Breastfeeding Infant Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding Report Card 2016
The CDC Breastfeeding Report Card brings together state-by-state information to help tell the story of breastfeeding practices and supports in states.

Breastfeeding Data and Statistics

This information includes U.S. National Immunization Survey, Breastfeeding Report Card, Infant Feeding Practices Survey II, Maternity Care Practices Survey and Health Styles Survey.

A woman drinking a glass of waterDrinking Water Facts

This fact sheet gives information on the importance of increasing daily intake of plain drinking water. Data is also provided on plain water consumption by age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and behavioral characteristics.

Frosted cupcakes sprinkled with sugarAdded Sugars Facts

This fact sheet gives information on added sugars and tells why Americans should limit their intake. Examples of added sugars seen on ingredient labels are given and data on added sugars consumption is provided.

Stalks of wheatMicronutrient Facts

This web site describes the importance of micronutrients, such as iron, iodine, vitamin A, folate, and zinc, in the diets of children and pregnant women. Deficiencies in these micronutrients can have devastating consequences. At least half of children worldwide ages 6 months to 5 years suffer from one or more micronutrient deficiency, and globally more than 2 billion people are affected.

US map Related Resources

Data, Maps, and Trends

The Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesitys Data, Trends and Maps is an interactive tool that provides state-specific data about obesity, nutrition, physical activity and breastfeeding. You can view statistics in a variety of formats, including maps, tables and trend lines. Explore Data, Trends and Maps.
Obesity Data and Statistics

Includes the latest statistics on adult and childhood obesity in the United States.

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STRATEGIES AND GUIDELINES

Actions states, communities, and parents can take to help improve dietary quality, and support healthy child development

https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/strategies-guidelines/index.html

Strategies & Guidelines

A family preparing a healthy meal.Dietary guidelines and public health approaches to improve population nutrition.

Dietary Guidelines encourages individuals to eat a healthful diet  one that focuses on foods and beverages that help achieve and maintain a healthy weight, promote health, and prevent chronic disease.

Healthy Food Service Guidelines are used to create a food environment in which healthier choices are made easier for consumers. These guidelines are used to increase the availability of healthier food and beverages to increase the likelihood that healthier options are selected by customers.

School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity serve as the foundation for developing, implementing, and evaluating school-based healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices for students in grades K-12.

State and Local Program – Nutrition Strategies Initiatives to increase access to healthier foods and beverages in retail venues can improve existing stores, encourage placement of new stores, improve transportation access to healthier food retailers and/or implement comprehensive in-store markets and promotion.

The CDC Guide to Strategies to Increase the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables[PDF-2.1MB] provides guidance for program managers, policy makers, and others on how to select strategies to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables

The CDC Guide to Strategies to Support Breastfeeding Mothers and Babies provides state and local community members with information to choose the breastfeeding intervention strategy that best meets their needs.

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RESOURCES AND PUBLICATIONS

Resources and publications related to nutrition, breastfeeding and micronutrient malnutrition

https://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/resources-publications/index.html

Resources & Publications
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CDC Vital Signs
Food Service Guidelines
State Indicator and Report cards
Tools
Training
The latest nutrition related resources and publications.

CDC Vital Signs

Hospital Actions Affect Breastfeeding: CDC Vital Signs Report October 2015 Hospital practices in the first hours and days after birth make the difference in whether and how long babies are breastfed.

Reducing Sodium in Children’s Diets: CDC Vital Signs September 2014 High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Lowering sodium in children’s diets today can help prevent heart disease tomorrow, especially for those who are overweight.
Progress on children eating more fruit, but not more vegetables: CDC Vital Signs August 2014 CDC trend data finds that US children ages 2-18 are eating more fruit, but not more vegetables. Child care and schools can help children meet daily recommendations.

Progress on Childhood Obesity CDC Vital Signs Report August 2013 Many states show declines, but there is more work to be done to continue the downward trend.

Hospital Support for Breastfeeding: CDC Vital Signs Report August 2011 Breastfeeding helps protect against childhood obesity. A baby’s risk of becoming an overweight child goes down with each month of breastfeeding.

Adult Obesity: CDC Vital Signs Report August 2010 Obesity is common, serious, and costly. In 2009, about 2.4 million more adults were obese than in 2007. More efforts are needed, and new federal initiatives are helping to change our communities into places that strongly support healthy eating and active living.

Food Service Guidelines

Food Service Guidelines
Food service guidelines are used to create a food environment in which healthier choices are made easier for consumers. This section contains documents and fact sheets pertaining to food service guidelines.

State Indicator and Report cards

Breastfeeding

2014 Breastfeeding Report Card[PDF-1.25 MB] provides state-by-state data to help public health practitioners, health professionals, community members, child care providers, and family members work together to protect, promote and support breastfeeding. The Report Card indicators measure types of support in key community settings as well as the most current data on the breastfeeding goals outlined in Healthy People 2020.

Fruits and Vegetables

The State Indicator Report on Fruits & Vegetables, 2013[PDF- 1.23MB] provides national and state-level information on how many fruits and vegetables people are eating, and highlights key areas within communities and schools that can be improved to increase fruit and vegetable access, availability, and affordability.

The National Action Guide[PDF-160KB] summarizes the national data on fruit and vegetable consumption and policy and environmental supports. It also provides potential actions that government and business leaders, coalitions, community-based organizations, and professionals can take to support Americans’ eating more fruits and vegetables, along with resources for taking action.

State Action Guides

Children’s Food Environment

Children’s Food Environment State Indicator Report, 2011[PDF-768KB] highlights selected behaviors, environments, and policies that affect childhood obesity through support of healthy eating.

National Action Guide[PDF-616KB] provides potential actions that state leaders, coalitions, community-based organizations, and professionals can take alone or in partnership to support state residents’ purchase and consumption of more healthful foods.

Census Tract Level State Maps of the Modified Retail Food Environment Index (mRFEI)[PDF55.1MB] includes maps of the mRFEI for each state and Washington D.C. These maps can be used to help identify census tracts within states or communities that either lack access to healthy food retailers such as supermarkets or contain very high densities of fast food restaurants and convenience stores relative to the number of healthy food retailers. States and communities can also use data from the mRFEI Data Table[Excel5.04MB] to create their own maps using GIS software or link the mRFEI data to other census-tract level data they may have available.
Prevention Status Reports

The 2013 Prevention Status Reports (PSRs), highlight the status of policies and practices designed to prevent or reduce problems affecting public health. Individual reports are available for all 50 states and the District of Columbia on 10 health topics including Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity. The PSR Quick Start Guide provides tips and tools to help state health officials and other public health leaders use the PSRs to advance evidence-based public health practices in their states.

Surgeon General’s Reports

2011  The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding

2010  The Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation[PDF-840KB]

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs)

Vital Signs: Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Children  United States, 20032010; from August 2014

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Adults  18 States, 2012; from August 2014

Restaurant Menu Labeling Use Among Adults  17 States, 2012; from July 2014
Access to Healthier Food Retailers  United States, 2011; from November 2011

Beverage Consumption Among High School Students  United States, 2010; from June 2011

Obesity  United States, 1999  2010; from November 2011

Vital Signs: Hospital Practices to Support Breastfeeding  United States, 2007 and 2009; from August 2011

Visit CDCs Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) for more information on this topic.

Tools

Healthy Hospital Environments and Toolkit provides guidance to hospital nutritionists, human resources and employee health staff, and others who wish to promote and support healthy food, beverage, and physical activity options in hospitals.

Training

CDC Growth Chart Training Website offers a set of self-directed, interactive training courses for health care professionals using the pediatric growth charts in clinical and public health settings to assess growth of infants, children, and teens.

For More Information

Breastfeeding Resources and Publications

DNPAO Media Tools

DNPAO Staff Publications

International Micronutrient Program (IMMPaCt) Tools

Nutrition Policy Resources provides Information about Nutrition policy

Obesity Resources and Publications

State and Local Programs Nutrition Strategies

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PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/index.html

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PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BASICS

Needs and benefits, examples, and videos

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/index.htm

How much physical activity do you need?

Regular physical activity helps improve your overall health and fitness, and reduces your risk for many chronic diseases.

Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at first, but the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans are more flexible than ever, giving you the freedom to reach your physical activity goals through different types and amounts of activities each week. It’s easier than you think!

Physical Activity Guidelines

Children on bicyclesChildren
6 to 17 years old*

Older adults playing basketballOlder Adults
65 years or older

Adults jogging

Adults
18 to 64 years old

Pregnant woman lifting weightsPregnant or Postpartum Women *The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans do not include guidelines for children younger than 6 years old.

Physical activity in infants and young children is, of course, necessary for healthy growth and development. Children younger than 6 should be physically active in ways appropriate for their age and stage of development.

Physical activity guidelines for children younger than 6 that are specific to the early care and education setting are included in Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards; Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs (3rd Ed.)

Physical Activity Basics

Physical Activity and Health

Adding Physical Activity to Your Life

Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

Videos

Glossary of Terms

Success Stories

Harold, Age 7
Maria, Age 16
Alex, Age 32
Demetrise, Age 42
David, Age 65
Harold, Age 67

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RESOURCES AND PUBLICATIONS

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Reports, recommendations, facts sheets, and social media

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/resources/index.htm

Reports

State Indicator Reports, Surgeon Generals Report and other physical activity reports.

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/resources/reports.html

Reports
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State Indicator Reports
Surgeon General Reports
Vital Signs
MMWRS
This section provides links to key reports and recommendations that serve as the foundation for addressing physical activity.

State Indicator Reports

The State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014[PDF-2.8MB] presents information on physical activity behaviors and policies that encourage and support physical activity in states.

Three people joggingThe report shows that physical activity among adults and high school students is higher in some states than others. Overall, most states have some supports in place that encourage physical activity, but more work is needed to increase opportunities for people to be physically active in their communities and schools. These supports may include state-level guidance on recess and physical activities policies in schools, walking or biking to and from school, joint-use agreements, and complete streets policies.

This report can be used to learn what states across the nation are doing to encourage and support physical activity and to identify opportunities for improving community supports in each state. Individual state Action Guides summarize each states data and provide suggested actions that state health departments can take to encourage and increase physical activity in their states.

State Indicator Report on Physical Activity 2010[PDF-1.5MB]
The State Indicator Report on Physical Activity 2010 provides information on physical activity behavior and policy and environmental supports within each state. Physical activity, essential to overall health, can help control weight, reduce the risk of heart disease and some cancers, strengthen bones and muscles, and improve mental health.

Also available:

The National Action Guide[PDF-237KB] summarizes PA levels among Americans and also provides potential action items to support state-level policy and environmental changes to increase PA.
State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2010 Data Tables with Confidence Intervals[PDF-305KB] provides state-specific information summarized for each state’s physical activity levels and compared to the nation.

Surgeon General Reports

1996 Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
The 1996 Surgeon General’s report was the first to address physical activity and health.

Vital Signs

Adults with Disabilities: CDC Vital Signs
Being physically active is one of the most important steps Americans of all ages, shapes, sizes and abilities can take to improve their health. A new CDC Vital Signs report shows that adults with disabilities who get no physical activity are 50% more likely to have diabetes, stroke, heart disease, or cancer than those who get the recommended amount of physical activity.

More People Walk to Better Health: CDC Vital Signs
Find out how many Americans are walking their way to better health, and what can be done to make it easier for others to walk.

Prevention Status Reports
The Prevention Status Reports highlight the status of public health policies and practices designed to prevent or reduce important public health problems. Individual reports are available for all 50 states and the District of Columbia on 10 key health topics, including Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.

MMWRs

Recent Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs)

Adults Eligible for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Counseling and Participation in Aerobic Physical Activity  United States, 2013
Weekly
September, 25, 2015/64(37); 1047-1051

Declines in Student Obesity Prevalence Associated with a Prevention Initiative  King County, Washington, 2012
MMWR, February 21, 2014/63( 7); 155-157

Adult Participation in Aerobic and Muscle-Strengthening Physical Activities  United States, 2011
MMWR, May 3, 2013/62(17); 326-330
Also available: Participation in Physical Activity MMWR Highlights[PDF-106KB]

Related Information

International Physical Activity Questionnaires
A set of instruments that can be used internationally to obtain comparable estimates of physical activity.

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Recommendations Guidelines

Physical Activity Guidelines, National Physical Activity Plan, Guidelines for School and Community Programs.

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/resources/recommendations.html

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Fact Sheets

2008 Physical Activity Guidelines Fact Sheets for Professionals

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/resources/factsheets.html

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Social Media Tools

Badges and Buttons, eCards, Podcasts, Videos

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/resources/socialmedia.html

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WORKSITE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Physical activity at work and worksite walking programs

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/worksite-pa/index.htm

Worksite Physical Activity

Group of people jumpingA worksite wellness program that includes a physical activity component can help maintain a healthier workforce. A healthier workforce can benefit from reduced direct costs associated with health care expenses.1,2 The worksite wellness program also has potential to increase employees productivity 3,4 reduce absenteeism,1,4 and increase morale.5 Additionally, these programs are often seen as a central component of an attractive employee compensation and benefits package that can be used as a recruitment and retention tool to attract and keep high quality employees.5 Worksites can encourage physical activity through a multicomponent approach of offering management support, physical access to opportunities, policies, and social support programs.

Group of people joggingRegardless of size, resources, setting, and type all worksites can provide opportunities to promote physical activity for their employees. CDCs Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity supports worksite wellness programs to increase physical activity because of the following:

There are numerous health benefits related to physical activity. These health benefits include a lower risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and stroke, some cancers, and depression.6
Only half of all American adults report meeting the physical activity guidelines.7

Each day in the United States, more than 150 million American adults participate in the labor force.8

With employees spending 7.6 hours a day on average at their place of employment, worksites provide a unique setting to promote practices that can significantly increase physically active employees and potentially affect the health of millions of working adults.9

Many barriers to physical activity can be addressed by worksite physical activity programs. For example, a simple walking path that provides employees with the opportunity to walk at work may address barriers such as not having time to walk, concerns about neighborhood safety, or lack of social support.
Selected Resources

Physical Activity in the Workplace: A Guide for Employers[PDF-338KB]
Current Practices in Worksite Wellness Initiatives[PDF-3.01MB]
Six states working to implement worksite wellness initiative by using strategies such as programs, policies, environmental supports, or community links to promote the health of their employees.

Manager and Supervisor Support for Worksite Health Promotion Programs Integrative Literature Review[PDF-171KB]

Worksite Physical Activity Highlights in Kentucky[PDF-724KB]
These highlights examine the successful implementation of a worksite physical activity program in the Kentucky Department of Education and Department of Health.

Worksite Physical Activity Highlights in Mississippi[PDF-273KB]
These highlights explore evidence-based strategies to bring worksite physical activity to more people in Mississippi agencies.

Worksite Physical Activity Highlights in Utah[PDF-2.55KB]
These highlights explore early evidence for successful practices in an area in Utah where practitioners are currently searching for understandable, common language advice in how to help staff members manage health at work.

References

Naydeck BL, Pearson JA, Ozminkowski RJ, Day BT, Goetzel RZ. The impact of the Highmark employee wellness programs on 4-year health care costs. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50(2):146-156.
Baicker K, Cutler D, Song Z. Workplace wellness programs can generate savings. Health Affairs. 2010; 29(2):1-8.

Goetzel, RZ, Ozminkowski, RJ. The health and cost benefits of work site health-promotion programs. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:303-323.
Mills PR, Kessler RC, Cooper J, Sullivan S. Impact of a health promotion program on employee health risks and work productivity. Am J Health Promot. 2007;22(1):45-53.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Steps to Wellness: A Guide to Implementing the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans in the Workplace[PDF – 3 MB] . Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2012. Accessed November 11, 2014.

Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.
Paul P. Analysis of data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. Accessed May 25, 2015.

U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment Situation Summary Table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted. 2014. Accessed January 7, 2015.
American Time Use Survey2013 Results[PDF-271KB]. Accessed May 27, 2015.

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DATA AND STATISTICS
Facts, statistics, State Indicator Reports, and surveillance systems

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/data/index.html

Data and Statistics

Facts about Physical Activity
Find the latest statistics on physical activity in the United States.

Data, Trends and Maps
Use these maps and interactive database systems to find information relating to physical activity.

State Indicator Report on Physical Activity 2010[PDF-1.5MB]
Information on physical activity behavior and policy and environmental supports within each state.

Surveillance Systems
Nutrition, physical activity, obesity, and breastfeeding surveys and data collection systems.

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COMMUNITY STRATEGIES
Community strategies, community design, and transportation policy

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/community-strategies/index.htm

Community Strategies

Community Strategies Bike SymbolCreating or modifying environments to make it easier for people to walk or bike is a strategy that not only helps increase physical activity, but can makes our communities better places to live. Communities designed to support physical activity are often called active communities. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends three strategies to increase physical activity that are related to walkabilitycommunity-scale urban design, street-scale urban design, and improving access to places for physical activity (including providing maps and descriptive information).1,2 Studies show more people bike and walk in communities where improvements have been made to biking and walking conveniences. This includes adding safer sidewalks, pedestrian crossings, and protected bike lanes.1 In addition, when people move to neighborhoods that are designed to promote physical activity and active transportation (mixed-use developments), they tend to spend less time in their cars and more time walking for transportation.3

Active Communities are Safer Communities

Dad walking with two kidsStreets designed to be walkable and bike-able improve safety for everyone. Programs like Safe Routes to Schools improve the safety of children who walk and bike to school. These programs have shown reductions in traffic-related injuries.4,5 Communities designed to encourage walking increase the number of people out and about, thus increasing the number of “eyes on the street” and deterring illegal activity.6-8

Active Communities Support Social Cohesion

Going on a hike with a teenage child. Stopping to chat with neighbors while walking the dog. Biking down to the local coffee shop with a friend. Going outside for a “walking meeting” with colleagues. All of these are examples of how walking can help build social cohesion through interpersonal interaction.9

Active Communities Reduce Air Pollution

Improving the community environment so that people can choose to walk, bike, or take transit offers environmental benefits. Each time people choose to walk, bike, or take public transit rather than drive, they reduce the air pollution and greenhouse gases that their car would have produced.10-12

Active Communities Provide Economic Benefits

Features of active communitiespedestrian-friendly streets, protected bike lanes, compactness, mixed land use, and access to transithave been shown to be associated with economic benefits to the community.13 These benefits can include higher home real estate values and higher levels of retail activity, and can lower the cost of providing public infrastructure and delivering services such as utilities.13 Active communities also prove to be attractive places for businesses to locate.13

Actions that States and Communities Can Take:

Create or enhance physical activity environments to be pedestrian and bicycle friendly.

Support community design and transportation planning policy to support walking and other forms of active transport.

Implement strategies in the National Physical Activity Plan, and the National Prevention Strategy and CDC Recommendations for Improving Health through Transportation policy.

Resources

The CDC Guide to Strategies to Increase Physical Activity in the Community[PDF-1.2MB]

This document provides guidance for program managers, policy makers, and others on how to select strategies to increase physical activity in the community.

The National Physical Activity Plan

This comprehensive set of policies, programs and initiatives aim to increase physical activity in all segments of the American population.

The Community Guide

The Guide to Community Preventive Services is a free resource to help decision makers choose programs and policies to improve health and prevent disease in their community.

CDCs Designing and Building Healthy Places
This website offers tools and evidence-based health strategies for community planning, transportation, and land-use decisions.

Health Impact Assessment
This assessment tool helps communities make informed choices about improving public health through community design.

Joint Use Agreements

These agreements increase opportunities for physical activity by allowing groups  usually a school and a city or private organization  to share indoor and outdoor spaces like gymnasiums, athletic fields and playgrounds to keep communities healthy.

This website provides resources to help establish these agreements.

Smart Growth

Smart growth helps communities grow in ways that expand economic opportunity while protecting human health and the environment. These reports from the Environmental Protection Agencys Smart Growth Program are designed to inform developers, businesses, local government, and other groups about the benefits of smart growth development.

Smart Growth and Economic Success: Strategies for Local Governments (2014) discusses smart growth approaches local governments can use to lower costs and/or increase revenue.

Smart Growth and Economic Success: The Business Case (2013) discusses how locations with housing and transportation options, a mix of uses close together, and a high quality of life can improve environmental outcomes while providing economic advantages for businesses.

Smart Growth and Economic Success: Benefits for Real Estate Developers, Investors, Business, and Local Governments (2012) outlines the benefits of smart growth development for developers, businesses, local government, and other groups.

Rethinking Streets: An Evidence-Based Guide to 25 Complete Street Transformations
“Complete streets” are designed to enable safe access for all users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists and transit riders of all ages and abilities. This book uses examples from completed street projects from around the United States.

References

Heath GW, Brownson RC, Kruger J, et al. The effectiveness of urban design and land use and transport policies and practices to increase physical activity: a systematic review. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2002;3:S55-76.

Task Force on Community Preventive S. Recommendations to increase physical activity in communities. Am J Prev Med 2002;22:67-72.

Mumford KG, Contant CK, Weissman J, Wolf J, Glanz K. Changes in Physical Activity and Travel Behaviors in Residents of a Mixed-Use Development. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2011;41:504-7.

DiMaggio C, Li GH. Effectiveness of a Safe Routes to School Program in Preventing School-Aged Pedestrian Injury. Pediatrics 2013;131:290-6.

United States Department of Transportation, National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Evaluation of the Safety Benefits of Legacy Safe Routes to School Programs:

http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov2009.

Newman O. Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Macmillan; 1973.

Mair JS, Mair M. Violence prevention and control through environmental modifications. Annual review of public health 2003:24(1), 209-25.
Jeffery C. Crime prevention through environmental design. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications; 1971.

Leyden KM. Social capital and the built environment: The importance of walkable neighborhoods. Am J Public Health 2003;93:1546-51.

Grabow ML, Spak SN, Holloway T, Stone Jr. B, Mednick AC, Patz JA. Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States. Environmental Health Perspectives 2012:68-76.

Rabl A, de Nazelle A. Benefits of Shift from Car to Active Transport. Transport Policy 19 2010:121-31.
Lindsay G, Macmillan A, Woodward A. Moving urban trips from cars to bicycles. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2011;5.1:54-60.

Smart Growth and Economic Success: Benefits for Real Estate Developers, Investors, Businesses and Local Governments: Environmental Protection Agency; 2012.

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WALKING
Walking and walkability

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/walking/index.htm

Why Walk? Why Not!

Walk more – take action to improve your health.

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults get at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination each week. The guidelines also recommend that children and adolescents be active for at least 60 minutes every day. Following these guidelines can contribute to overall health, and decrease the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer or diabetes.

Walking is a great way to get the physical activity needed to obtain health benefits. Walking does not require any special skills. It also does not require a gym membership or expensive equipment.

Why not! Add walking as part of your daily routine.

For more information about walking, check out these resources below:

Selected Resources  Learn More about Walking

Step It Up! Surgeon General’s Call to Action cover page Step it Up! The Surgeon Generals Call to Action to Promote Walking and Walkable Communities presents five goals and supporting implementation strategies to help Americans be physically active and for the nation to better support walking and walkable communities for people of all ages and abilities.

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Physical Activity Builds a Healthy Strong AmericaPhysical Activity Builds a Healthy and Strong America [PDF-1.06MB]

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/healthy-strong-america.pdf

This infographic outlines the effects inadequate physical activity has on our nations health, economy and military readiness. It also emphasizes the many health, safety, and community benefits increased physical activity can offer.

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Promoting Airport WalkingPromoting Airport Walking: A Guide [PDF-2.35MB]

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/CDC-Airport-Walking-Guide.pdf

The Airport Walking Guide was developed as part of CDCs Walk to Fly project to encourage airport travelers (through point of decision signage) to make active choices.

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Mall Walking: A Program Resource Guide [PDF-5.2MB]

https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/mallwalking-guide.pdf

The Mall Walking Guide provides information about the health benefits of walking, explains why mall walking programs can help people walk more, and provides practical strategies for starting and maintaining walking programs.

Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 – 4584
jwne@temple.edu
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

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Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
http://guides.temple.edu/copyright-plagiarism
Fair Use
http://guides.temple.edu/fair-use

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Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

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Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
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http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
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http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html

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Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
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Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

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